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Health Wise

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The packet of enzymes in a normal sperm's head that allows the sperm to dissolve a hole in the outer coating around the egg, which allows the sperm to penetrate and fertilize the egg.
Age related Macular Degeneration(AMD)
Age-related macular degeneration is a disease that causes blurring of your central vision. The blurring happens because of damage to the macula, a small area at the back of the eye.
Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's Disease is a brain disease which affect memory, thought, language and reasoning. It is the most common type of dementia and is progressive type of disease.
Simply put, anaemia is the inability of red blood cells to carry oxygen to different parts of the body. It usually means low Haemoglobin levels. Anaemia might also arise out of certain disease and disorders.
Chemicals made by the body to fight or attack foreign substances entering the body. Normally they prevent infection; however, when they attack the sperm or fetus, they can cause infertility.
Anticardiolipin Antibodies (ACA)
An antibody directed against cardiolipin. These are one of the antiphospholipid groups of antibodies. Approximately 80% of patients who have an antiphospholipid antibody problem will test positive for anticardiolipin antibodies, but the remaining 20% will test positive for one of the other six antiphospholipid antibodies.
Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APA)
The acquired autoantibodies to negatively charged phospholipids found in approximately 15% of patients diagnosed with recurrent pregnancy loss. A positive test indicates that a woman’s blood clots too fast, cutting off support to the fetus. The correlation between the presence of APA and in vitro fertilization success has been a point of controversy over the past several years. In 1999 Joe Massey, MD (RBA), in cooperation with several leading infertility centers in the US and Canada conducted a meta-analysis of studies examining the relationship between the presence of serum antiphospholipid antibodies to IVF success and found no significant association.
Antisperm Antibodies
Antibodies made by either the man or the woman that can attach to sperm and inhibit movement of sperm or fertilization. Antibodies are frequently positive in men who have had vasectomies and vasectomy reversals, or testicular injuries. \r\n
Arthritis and rheumatism against popular belief can affect people of any age. Pain and stiffness in the body combined with difficulty in mobility are the usual symptoms. Most types of arthritis cause pain and swelling in the joints. Over time, a swollen joint can become severely damaged. Some kinds of arthritis can also cause problems in your organs, such as your eyes or skin.
Artificially Stimulated Ejaculation
Controlled electrical stimulation to induce ejaculation in a man with damage to the nerves that control ejaculation. \r\n
Assisted Hatching
is thinning out the zona pellucida (The protective outer membrane surrounding the egg) prior to transferring the embryo into the uterus. \r\n
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.
Astigmatism is a mild and easily treatable imperfection in the curvature of your eye.
Autism is a developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life, and affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills.
Basal Body Temperature Test (BBT)
The temperature of the woman taken every morning during a menstrual cycle prior to any activity. It may help to determine whether or not ovulation is occurring.
A fragment of tissue removed for study under the microscope. Endometrial and testicular tissues are often removed for study
An embryo that has developed for five days after fertilization. At this point the embryo has two different cell types and a central cavity. The surface cells (trophectoderm) will become the placenta, and the inner cell mass will become the fetus. A healthy blastocyst should hatch from the zona pellucida by the end of the sixth day. Within about 24 hours after hatching, it should begin to implant into the lining of the uterus.
One of the most common Paediatric complaints, Bronchitis may also occur in adults. It is the inflammation of the bronchii and air passages in lungs which may be caused by infections or other causes. Infants usually get bronchiolitis, which involves the smaller airways and causes symptoms similar to asthma.
Cannulation for tubal blockage
The insertion of a cannula to attempt to dilate a blockage of the tube at the site where the uterus connects to the tube.
Cervical Mucus
Mucus produced by the cervix that permits passage of sperm from the vagina into the uterus. Cervical mucus may assist in preventing infections and usually thins around ovulation to aid in sperm transport.
Cervical spondylosis
Cervical spondylosis is a common degenerative condition of the cervical spine and most likely caused by age-related changes in the intervertebral disks. Usual symptoms include neck and shoulder pain, suboccipital pain and headache, radicular symptoms, and cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).
Chicken Pox
One of the most comon childhood diseases, chicken pox is caused by the virus varicella zoster and is highly contagiuos. Fever followed by itchy rashes all over body particularly torso are the classic symptoms.
A type of bacterial organism that is frequently transmitted sexually between partners or from an infected mother to her newborn child; the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease (venereal disease). A leading cause of tubal damage in women and men
Cornea is a transparent structure through which the light rays have to pass through cornea to enter the eye. If the cornea is diseased, it loses its transparency. Hence the light rays do not reach inside the eye causing blindness. Corneal blindness or blindness due to corneal disease can be cured by corneal transplantation, in which diseased cornea is replaced by a normal cornea, obtained through eye donation.
Corpus luteum
A special gland formed on the surface of the ovary following ovulation which produces progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone is necessary to prepare the uterine lining for implantation by a fertilized egg.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects the whole body, if left untreated and unmanaged. In a normal human being, the food eaten is digested and broken into glucose and then absorbed by the body. But in Diabetes this is hampered and absorption is less or nil. This leaves the body with low energy levels and incapable of other functions. The hormone named insulin which is secreted from Pancreas controls the sugar levels in the body. In Type I diabetes the body produces nil or next to nil insulin, Type II where the pancreas produces some insulin but still the absorption of glucose does not conform to the desired levels and Gestational Diabetes when during pregnancy, some women become diabetic( about 4%).
Diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness. It occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels inside the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye.
Dilatation and curettage
An operation that involves stretching the cervical opening to scrape out the uterus. \r\n
Donor Insemination (artificial Insemination)
The placement of sperm from a donor which has been washed free of seminal fluid into the uterine cavity.
Egg donation
The act of donating eggs to someone else for use in attempting pregnancy through in vitro fertilization. Donors may be either compassionate (known to recipient) or anonymous.
Ejaculatory Duct Reconstruction
Surgical procedure to repair the male ducts that contract with orgasm to cause ejaculation in order to restore the ability to ejaculate sperm. \r\n
Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. It usually occurs with severe attack of meningitis. Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue. More advanced and serious symptoms include seizures or convulsions, tremors, hallucinations, and memory problems.
A special type of ovarian cyst that is chocolate in color and contains endometrial cells that grows and bleeds during menstruation. Endometiomas are associated with severe endometriosis.
One of the more common brain disorders, it involves repeated, spontaneous seizures.Seizures also termed as fits or convulsions are episodes of disturbed brain function that cause changes in attention or behavior. They are caused by abnormally excited electrical signals in the brain.
A class of female sex hormones produced mainly by the ovaries from the onset of puberty and continuing until menopause. They are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics
Fallopian Tubes
Hollow tubes through which eggs travel to the uterus once released from the follicle. Sperm normally meet the egg in the fallopian tube, the site at which fertilization usually occurs. The fallopian tube is divided anatomically into a few regions: closest to the uterus and within the uterine wall is the "interstitium" (where interstitial pregnancies develop), next is the "isthmus" (immediately outside the uterine wall) then the "ampulla" (midsection of the tube) and then the "infundibular or fimbrial portion" (adjacent to the ovary at the end of the tube). \r\n
Commonly found in children when having a high bout of fever, fits is actually episodes of disturbed brain function that cause changes in attention or behavior. They are caused by abnormally excited electrical signals in the brain. Recurrence of fits for no obvious reason might be epilepsy.
Follicular phase
The pre-ovulatory phase of a woman's cycle during which the follicle grows and high estrogen levels cause the uterine lining to proliferate.
Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT)
Combining eggs and sperm outside of the body and immediately placing them into the fallopian tubes to achieve fertilization. \r\n
The term “Glaucoma” is used in reference to the entire group of disorders characterized by progressive atrophy of the optic nerve head secondary to the loss of optic nerve fibres which may result in certain visual field loss pattern aid in eversible blindness, the most frequent causative factor and the only one that can be manipulated effectively being elevated intra-ocular pressure.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
The hormone produced and released by the hypothalamus that controls the pituitary gland's production and release of gonadotropins. \r\n
Guillain -Barre Syndrome
GBS is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), a disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system. Ascending paralysis, weakness beginning in the feet and hands and migrating towards the trunk, is the most typical symptom.
Hamster test
A test of the ability of a man's sperm to penetrate a hamster egg stripped of its outer membrane, the zona pellucida, also called Hamster Zona-Free Ovum (HZFO) Test or Sperm Penetration Assay (SPA).
Heart Attack
Heart Attack is the common man’s term for the condition called Myocardial Infarction (MI). Simply explained it is the rupturing of a blood vessel in the heart leading to the death of one of the many muscles that make up a heart. Caused by various reasons, MI occurs mostly because of high cholesterol. The plaque developed inside the blood vessels lead to two conditions called the atherosclerotic heart disease (AHSD) or coronary artery disease (CAD).
Hemizona assay
A laboratory test of the ability of sperm to penetrate into a human egg; first the egg is split in half, then one half is tested against the husband's sperm and the other half against sperm from a fertile man
A hernia is a condition which occurs when a muscle or organ protrudes out of the through the wall of the cavity that contains it. Most herniae occur in abdomen.
High Risk Pregnancies
High Risk Pregnancies is too wide a term to explain. Women with a history of diabetes or other metabolic disorders, multiple abortions, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV+ or psychological trauma are susceptible to high risk pregnancies.
Excessive production of androgens in women, frequently a cause of hirsutism and also associated with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). \r\nHyperprolactinemia
Commonly known as high blood pressure it is elevated systemic arterial blood pressure. Keeping in control is amust to keep other problems at bay like cardiac problems.
Hyperthyroidism is a condition of overproduction of sections from thyroid gland. This leads to many complicated diseases and conditions like Grave's disease, thyrotoxicosis, infertility etc, if left untreated
Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
An x-ray procedure in which a special dye is injected into the uterus through a tube placed through the cervix to illustrate the inner contour of the uterus and the degree of openness of the fallopian tubes
Immune system
The body's defense against any injury or invasion by a foreign substance or organism.
Attachment of the fertilized egg to the uterine lining, usually occurring five to seven days after ovulation.
Complete or partial inability to achieve an erection
Inability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy or to carry a pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected sexual relations. For a woman over 35 years of age, infertility should be investigated after attempting to achieve a pregnancy for 6 months.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
A micromanipulation procedure where a single sperm is injected into the egg to enable fertilization with very low sperm counts or with non-motile sperm. \r\n
Jaundice is a condition affecting the liver. When the blood contains higher levels of bilirubin, jaundice symptoms surface. Yellow pigmentation of skin, eyes, mucus membranes, urine are classic symptoms.
Johnson Steven Disease
A severe inflammatory eruption of the skin and mucous membranes, usually occurring in children and young adults following a respiratory infection or as an allergic reaction to drugs or other substances.
Kidney stones
One of the most common problems, Kidney stones and gall bladder stones are painful. In a normal healthy person, impurities are flushed out as urine. But in some, it isn’t and forms crystals in the kidney, ureter or gall bladder. These crystals or calculi are the stones.
Klinefelter's syndrome
A chromosome abnormality that prevents normal male sexual development and causes irreversible infertility due to the presence of an extra female (X) chromosome. In some cases pregnancies may be achieved by the retrieval of sperm via biopsy of the testicles and fertilization of eggs by ICSI combined with IVF
Laparoscopy (LAP)
The surgical visual examination of the pelvic organs (ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes) through the use of a small telescope called a laparoscope. The abdominal cavity is inflated with carbon dioxide and a fiberoptic instrument is placed through the navel and through entry sites in the lower quadrants. Small instruments are introduced into the abdominal cavity to accomplish surgical repair of pelvic pathology. This can even performed as a out patient procedure, patient can resume work the very next day
Live birth per cycle rate
Shows the percentage of cycles started that resulted in a live birth (a delivery of one or more living babies). This rate is the one many people are most interested in when considering ART because it represents the average chances of having a live-born infant by using ART.
Live birth per egg retrieval rate
The percentage of cycles in which eggs were retrieved that resulted in a live birth. It is generally higher than the live birth per cycle rate because it excludes those cycles that were canceled before egg retrieval was carried out.
Meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord caused by viral, bacterial or other infections.The most common symptoms of meningitis are headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light (photophobia) or loud noises (phonophobia). If left untreated, it can pose threat to life.
Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA)
Using microsurgery to remove sperm from the epididymis for use in in vitro fertilization, often with ICSI.
Myocardial Infraction
Heart Attack is the common man’s term for the condition called Myocardial Infarction (MI). Simply explained it is the rupturing of a blood vessel in the heart leading to the death of one of the many muscles that make up a heart. Caused by various reasons, MI occurs mostly because of high cholesterol. The plaque developed inside the blood vessels lead to two conditions called the atherosclerotic heart disease (AHSD) or coronary artery disease (CAD).
Non-obstructive Azoospermia
Severely impaired or non-existent sperm production. Some sperm may be found and extracted directly from the testicles.
Obstructive Azoospermia
The result of obstruction in either the upper or lower male reproductive tract (epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles or ejaculatory ducts). Sperm production may be normal but the obstruction is preventing the sperm from being ejaculated. Some causes of obstructive azoospermia are vasectomy, congenital absence of vas deferens, scarring from past infections, and injury from hernia operations.
Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in joints, thereby exposing the bones without the shock absorbent. Healthy cartilage absorbs the shock of movement. When cartilage is lost, the bones rub together. Over time, this rubbing can permanently damage the joint. Factors that may cause osteoarthritis include being overweight, g older or injuring a joint
Otitis externa
The skin of the ear canal becomes inflamed when you may have scratched the lining or your outer ear canal or if you have a skin condition such as eczema, or picked up a fungal infection from swimming.
The female sexual gland that produces eggs and female hormones estrogen and progesterone. There are two ovaries, one on each side of the pelvis, and they are connected to the uterus by the fallopian tubes. \r\n
Pelvic Adhesions
Scar tissue occurring in the abdominal cavity, fallopian tubes, or inside the uterus. Adhesions can interfere with the function of the fallopian tube, affecting transport of the egg. Scar tissue in the uterus can interfere with implantation of the embryo in the uterus. Adhesions may result from previous injuries, infections or endometriosis. \r\n
Pelvic cavity
The area of the abdomen surrounded by the pelvic bone that contains the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries in women, and the prostate gland and seminal vesicles in men.
Pituitary gland
The endocrine gland at the base of the brain that produces the gonadotropin luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, which in turn stimulate the gonads to produce sex cells and hormones.
An acute inflammationof lungs accompanied by fluid retention in the alveoli is termed as Pneumonia.Several factors can contribute to the condition like viral, bacterial , fungal and parasitic infections or idiopathic reasons
Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD)
A condition found among women in which increased androgen production causes multiple small cysts to persist on the ovaries. There is an imbalance in the amount of LH and FSH released during the menstrual cycle, resulting in lack of ovulation
Post-coital test (PCT)
Microscopic examination of a woman's cervical mucus at the fertile time of the cycle to determine the number and motility of sperm following intercourse. A highly controversial test due to it’s lack of predictive value.
Pre term baby
A baby born before 37 weeks of gestation is termed as pre term baby. Those born before 32 weeks need special attention as their internal organs have not developed completely.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)
A procedure done in conjunction with IVF that allows the selection and transfer of unaffected embryos and avoids the need for terminating an affected pregnancy after diagnosis at later stages of gestation. To analyze for the presence of a genetic defect, it is necessary to remove the first polar body of an unfertilized egg and/or a cell or cells from each embryo. This is called an egg or embryo biopsy and is usually done before insemination occurs, or 3 days after fertilization. Biopsy of one or two cells at the 8-cell stage does not adversely affect preimplantation development. \r\n
A chronic autoimmune disease of the skin, it is not contagious.The skin grows faster because of faulty immune system and the extra skin shows as patches.There are different types of psoriasis
Quadratus lumborum Syndrome
The quadratus lumborum or QL is a common cause of back pain which is to one side and comes on after lifting or twisting. It is quite common for weightlifters and martial arts sportspersons.
One of the most contagious forms of skin diseases, Ringworm can occur on any part of the body. Caused by dermatophytic fungus called Epidermophyton floccosum which lives off dead cells, it progresses rapidly and makes circular lesions in the affected area.
Semen analysis
The laboratory examination of semen to check the quality and quantity of sperm. A complete semen analysis includes testing the pH, sperm concentration, motility, linearity, velocity (progression) and morphology. Sperm count is the number of sperm in the ejaculate (when given as the number of sperm per milliliter it is more accurately known as the sperm concentration or sperm density). Morphology involves assessing the shape of sperm and counting the percentage of normal shapes. Motility is the motion, such as the forward swimming motion of health sperm. \r\n
The male reproductive cell that has measurable characteristics such as mobility, density, morphology and viability. \r\n
Squint or Strabismus is the mis alignment of eyes. It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles, which prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision, which may adversely affect depth perception.
Stent is an artificial 'tube' inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract, a disease-induced, localized flow constriction. The term may also refer to a tube used to temporarily hold such a natural conduit open to allow access for surgery.
Surrogate mother
A woman who carries a pregnancy for an infertile couple. A traditional surrogate is artificially inseminated with a man's sperm (the man being the biological father of the child), and the couple adopts the baby at birth. A gestational carrier is a woman who carries a pregnancy achieved after the embryos of the biological parents are transferred into her uterus following IVF
Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
A needle biopsy of the testicle used to obtain small amounts of sperm. A small incision is made in the scrotal skin and a spring-loaded needle is fired through the testicle. Usually does not result in enough sperm to freeze for later use.
The primary male sex hormone produced in the testicles. Women also produce small amounts of testosterone
Children are the most affected by this disease. Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils most commonly caused by viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms of tonsillitis include sore throat and fever.
Triglycerides are a form of fat carried through the bloodstream. Mostly stored as fat cells, only a portion is found in the bloodstream. High triglycerides may be a sign of a lipoprotein problem that contributes to heart disease.
Tubal reversal
Surgery performed to reconnect the two ends fallopian tube (Ducts through which eggs travel to the uterus once released from the follicle. Sperm normally meet the egg in the fallopian tube, the site at which fertilization usually occurs. The fallopian tube is divided anatomically into a few regions: closest to the uterus and within the uterine wall is the "interstitium" (where interstitial pregnancies develop), next is the "isthmus" (immediately outside the uterine wall) then the "ampulla" (midsection of the tube) and then the "infundibular or fimbrial portion" (adjacent to the ovary at the end of the tube); sterilization reversal.
Ulcer in strictest sense means a wound caused by broken skin. But people tend to use it synonymously with peptic ulcers( stomach ulcers). Peptic ulcers are ulcers of stomach and duodendum. These sores are generally 1/4 inch to 3/4 inch in diameter, but sometimes 1 to 2 inches in diameter which form in the lining of the stomach (called gastric ulcers), just below the stomach at the beginning of the small intestine in the duodenum (called duodenal ulcers) or less commonly in the esophagus (called esophageal ulcers).
Unexplained infertility
Means that no cause of infertility was found in either the woman or the man. \r\nUrethra
The reproductive organ that houses, protects and nourishes the developing embryo/fetus. It is a hollow, muscular structure that is part of the female reproductive tract and is the source of a woman’s menses womb
A tubular passageway in the female connecting the external sex organs with the cervix and uterus; the birth canal
A collection of varicose veins in the scrotum that causes blood to flow in an abnormal direction. Elevated scrotal heat results, and affects the quality of the sperm.
Varicose Veins
The condition arises when extra blood is pooled in the blood vessels causing it to bulge and become enlarged. It often occurs in legs with long hours of standing. Mild inflammation of ankles is common in patients with varicose veins.
Werner Syndrome
Also called adult progeria , it is very rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the appearance of premature aging. The condition was depicted in the Hindi movie Paa.
Xerophthalmia is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears. It may be caused by a deficiency in vitamin A and is sometimes used to describe that lack, although there may be other causes.
An egg that has been fertilized but not yet divided.
Zygote Intra Fallopian transfer (ZIFT)
In vitro fertilization with a transfer of the zygote into the fallopian tube

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